SERIES 1-EPISODE 2

Before you listen

Exercise 1 In the table are 8 words from the programme. Below are synonyms of these words. Can you match them?

a.break

    b.company

c.expert

    d.handmade

e.last

    f.mate

g.offer

    h.supply

 

1.friend

2.virtuoso

3.business

4.proposition

5.rest

6.homemade

7.provide

8.latest

After that you listen this conversation After listening

Exercise 2

Choose which of the word(s) in bold is correct in each sentence, based on the information from the programme

1.Harry/Johnny plays football

2.Harry likes/doesn’t like his job

3.There are vacancies for computer/human resources experts in Johnny’s company

4.Olivia sells cheap/expensive shoes

5.Fadi prepares/sells food

6.Fadi’s uncle/father owns the business

SERIES 01-EPISODE 1

INTRODUCTION

This support pack accompanies the audio soap opera “BIG CITY SMALL WORLD”

It contains the following materials

  • A pre-listening vocabulary activity
  • Two comprehension activities
  • Two language activities

Before you listen

Exercise 1 Match the words in the table to their definitions

a. actually b. anywhere c. both d. chance
e. complicated f. counter g. to interrupt h. whatever

1. in any place

2. a flat surface in a shop or cafe where people are served

3. anything or everything

4. in fact, really

5. luck

6. to stop a person from speaking by saying or doing something

7. two people or things together

8. involving a lot of parts in a way that is difficult to understand

After that you listen this conversation and After listening

Exercise 2

Put these events in the correct order

1.Johny greets Sarah

2.Harry and Magda arrive

3.Johny asks if he can sit at Olivia’s table

4.Olivia suggests ordering some tea

5.Sarah arrives

6.Olivia is surprised to learn that harry and Magda are coming to the cafe

7. Olivia tells Johny that it’s a self-service cafe

8. Johny mentions his friend Harry

GOALS SETTING

WHAT IS GOAL?

•Objective, Purpose, Aim, Final Result
•A desired result a person or a system  visualizes, plans and commits to achieve
•An important part of human life
•Lead your life happily
•Determine the essence of your life
•Serves as a stimulus or something that inspires you to accomplish something.
GOAL COMMITMENT
People will perform better when they are committed to achieve certain goals.
Self-efficacy – one’s belief that they are able to achieve the goals;
Commitment to others – promises or engagements to others can strongly improve commitment
5 GOLDEN RULES of GOAL SETTING
1.Set Goals that Motivate You (why)
2.Set SMART Goals
–S – Specific
–M – Measurable
–A – Attainable
–R – Relevant
–T – Time-bound
3.Set Goals in Writing
4.Make an Action Plan
5.Stick With It!
SETTING SMALLER GOAL
•Then create a daily to-do-list  of things that you should do today to work towards your lifetime goals.
•At an early stage, your smaller goals might be to read books and gather information on the achievement of your higher level goals. This will help you to improve the quality and realism of your goal setting.
•Finally review your plans, and make sure that they fit the way in which you want to live your life.
SETTING LIFETIME GOAL
Career – What level do you want to reach in your career, or what do you want to achieve?
Financial – How much do you want to earn, by what stage? How is this related to your career goals?
Education – Is there any knowledge you want to acquire in particular? What information and skills will you need to have in order to achieve other goals?
Family – Do you want to be a parent? If so, how are you going to be a good parent? How do you want to be seen by a partner or by members of your extended family?
Artistic – Do you want to achieve any artistic goals?

Attitude – Is any part of your mindset holding you back? Is there any part of the way that you behave that upsets you? (If so, set a goal to improve your behavior or find a solution to the problem.)
Physical – Are there any athletic goals that you want to achieve, or do you want good health deep into old age? What steps are you going to take to achieve this?
Pleasure – How do you want to enjoy yourself? (You should ensure that some of your life is for you!)
Public Service – Do you want to make the world a better place? If so, how?

NOUN and PRONOUN

THERE ARE 2 KINDS OF NOUNS

  • Concrete Noun; kata benda yang berwujud (dapat dilihat dan diraba) Ex: Rukuh (nama orang), man(orang laki-laki), monas, jakarta, Medan, Siantar (place), gold, iron, etc.
  • Abstract Noun; kata benda yang tak berwujud (kata benda ini tidak berwujud dan tidak dapat dilihat atau diraba, tetapi dapat dibayangkan dan dirasakan. Ex: wisdom, happiness, wealth, riches, life, friendship faith. Wind, air, sun light

THERE ARE 4 TYPES IN CONCRETE NOUN:

  • Proper Noun; A proper noun names a particular person, place, thing, or idea, and is capitalized. Kata benda ini didahului oleh capital later yaitu: nama orang, nama kota, nama negara, sekolah, perusahaan, dan nama- nama tempat lainya.
    Ex: Susi, Rukuh, Tokyo, Hongkong, America, Harvard University, Cocacola, etc
  • Common Noun, A common noun names any one of a group or persons, places, things, or ideas and is generally not capitalized. kata benda umum. Kata benda umum adalah kata  benda biasa.
    Ex; teacher, book, plane, pen, mountain, etc.
  • Material Noun, kata benda yang terdiri atas bahan Mentah (bahan baku). Dalam hal ini material dari pertambangan dan bahan-bahan baku lainnya.
    Ex: gold, silver, paint, oil etc.
  • Collective Noun, kata benda kolektive. Kata benda yang memiliki arti majemuk.

    Ex: flock (sekawanan hewan), division, class, fleet, commitee, parliament

TYPES OF NOUNS

  • Common Noun- A noun that does not name a specific person, place or thing.

Picture1DOG

  • Proper Noun- A noun that names a specific person, place or thing

Picture2                   NEW YORK CITY

PRONOUNS

  • A pronoun is a word that takes the place of a noun.
    Examples: I, me, my, you, your, he, she, it , us, we, they, them, his, her, their, mine, our, myself, himself, herself, itself, yourself, themselves, ourselves, who, whose, whom, anybody, anyone, everybody, nobody, someone, somebody.
  • A pronoun is word that takes the place of a noun. Instead of saying “Erin likes to eat”, you could say, “She likes to eat.” What is the pronoun in the following sentence?

    I sing loudly in the shower.

    a. sing

    b. loudly

    c. I

    d. shower

Good try but, sing cannot be the pronoun because it is the action. Loudly describes how I was singing. Shower is noun, a thing. See if you can find the pronoun. Go back and try again.
Awesome! I is the pronoun because it takes the place of a noun. I replaces someone more specific like  girl, boy, Bob, or Mrs. Ryan

TOPIC FOR IELTS

The topics in the Speaking Test are familiar-family, society, education, habits, hobbies, employment,transport and so on. These major topics can be broken down into subtopics, for example

 

 

SOCIETY

Ceremonies; festivals; cultural events
Youth problems; ageing society
Age of consent; marriage and divorce; parenting
Community services; organisation and planning for communities
 

 

FAMILY

Relationships; nuclear and extended family; large and small families
Housework; sharing household chores
Senses of identity; love and affection
 

 

 

UNDERSTANDING PARAGRAPH

Identifying Topics, Main Ideas, and Supporting Details

Understanding the topic, the gist, or the larger conceptual framework of a textbook chapter, an article, a paragraph, a sentence or a passage is a sophisticated reading task. Being able to draw conclusions, evaluate, and critically interpret articles or chapters is important for overall comprehension in college reading. Textbook chapters, articles, paragraphs, sentences, or passages all have topics and main ideas. The topic is the broad, general theme or message. It is what some call the subject. The main idea is the “key concept” being expressed. Details, major and minor, support the main idea by telling how, what, when, where, why, how much, or how many. Locating the topic, main idea, and supporting details helps you understand the point(s) the writer is attempting to express. Identifying the relationship between these will increase your comprehension.

Applying Strategy

The successful communication of any author’s topic is only as good as the organization the author uses to build and define his/her subject matter.

Grasping the Main Idea:

A paragraph is a group of sentences related to a particular topic, or central theme. Every paragraph has a key concept ormain idea. The main idea is the most important piece of information the author wants you to know about the concept of that paragraph.

When authors write they have an idea in mind that they are trying to get across. This is especially true as authors compose paragraphs. An author organizes each paragraph’s main idea and supporting details in support of the topic or central theme, and each paragraph supports the paragraph preceding it.

A writer will state his/her main idea explicitly somewhere in the paragraph. That main idea may be stated at the beginning of the paragraph, in the middle, or at the end. The sentence in which the main idea is stated is the topic sentence of that paragraph.

The topic sentence announces the general theme ( or portion of the theme) to be dealt with in the paragraph. Although the topic sentence may appear anywhere in the paragraph, it is usually first – and for a very good reason. This sentence provides the focus for the writer while writing and for the reader while reading. When you find the topic sentence, be sure to underline it so that it will stand out not only now, but also later when you review.

Identifying the Topic:

The first thing you must be able to do to get at the main idea of a paragraph is to identify the topic – the subject of the paragraph. Think of the paragraph as a wheel with the topic being the hub – the central core around which the whole wheel (or paragraph) spins. Your strategy for topic identification is simply to ask yourself the question, “What is this about?” Keep asking yourself that question as you read a paragraph, until the answer to your question becomes clear. Sometimes you can spot the topic by looking for a word or two that repeat. Usually you can state the topic in a few words.

Let us try this topic-finding strategy. Reread the first paragraph on this page – the first paragraph under the headingGrasping the Main Idea. Ask yourself the question, “What is this paragraph about?” To answer, say to yourself in your mind, “The author keeps talking about paragraphs and the way they are designed. This must be the topic – paragraph organization.” Reread the second paragraph of the same section. Ask yourself “What is this paragraph about?” Did you say to yourself, “This paragraph is about different ways to organize a paragraph”? That is the topic. Next, reread the third paragraph and see if you can find the topic of the paragraph. How? Write the topic in the margin next to this paragraph. Remember, getting the main idea of a paragraph is crucial to reading.

The bulk of an expository paragraph is made up of supporting sentences (major and minor details), which help to explain or prove the main idea. These sentences present facts, reasons, examples, definitions, comparison, contrasts, and other pertinent details. They are most important because they sell the main idea.

The last sentence of a paragraph is likely to be a concluding sentence. It is used to sum up a discussion, to emphasize a point, or to restate all or part of the topic sentence so as to bring the paragraph to a close. The last sentence may also be a transitional sentence leading to the next paragraph.

Of course, the paragraphs you’ll be reading will be part of some longer piece of writing – a textbook chapter, a section of a chapter, or a newspaper or magazine article. Besides expository paragraphs, in which new information is presented and discussed, these longer writings contain three types of paragraphs: introductory, transitional, and summarizing.

Introductory paragraphs tell you, in advance, such things as (1) the main ideas of the chapter or section; (2) the extent or limits of the coverage; (3) how the topic is developed; and (4) the writer’s attitude toward the topic. Transitionalparagraphs are usually short; their sole function is to tie together what you have read so far and what is to come – to set the stage for succeeding ideas of the chapter or section. Summarizing paragraphs are used to restate briefly the main ideas of the chapter or section. The writer may also draw some conclusion from these ideas, or speculate on some conclusion based on the evidence he/she has presented.

All three types should alert you: the introductory paragraph of things to come; the transitional paragraph of a new topic; and the summarizing paragraph of main ideas that you should have gotten.

Exercise:

Read the following paragraph and underline the stated main idea. Write down in your own words what you are able to conclude from the information.

The rules of conduct during an examination are clear. No books, calculators or papers are allowed in the test room. Proctors will not allow anyone with such items to take the test. Anyone caught cheating will be asked to leave the room. His or her test sheet will be taken. The incident will be reported to the proper authority. At the end of the test period, all materials will be returned to the proctor. Failure to abide by these rules will result in a failing grade for this test.

Answer:

You should have underlined the first sentence in the paragraph – this is the stated main idea. What can be concluded from the information is: If you do not follow the rules, you will automatically fail the test. This concluding information is found in the last sentence.

 

You can’t comprehend the subject matter if you haven’t identifyied the topic, the main idea, and the supporting details.

PERKEMBANGAN MASA ANAK-ANAK AWAL

Masa anak-anak dimulai setelah melewati masa bayi yang penuh ketergantungan, yakni kira-kira usia 2 tahun sampai saat anak matang secara seksual, yakni kira-kira usia 13 tahun untuk wanita dan 14 tahun untuk pria. Selama periode ini terjadi perubahan-perubahan baik secara fisik maupun psikologis. Sejumlah ahli membagi masa anak-anak menjadi dua bagian, yaitu masa anak-anak awal dan masa anak-anak akhir.

perkembangan masa kanak kanak awal

Untuk lebih lengkapnya, click this

CINTA, SEKS, DAN PACARAN

Pacaran Menurut Sudut Pandang Kristen

Pacaran Menurut Kristen – Berbicara tentang pacaran menurut Kristen, tentu tidak akan terlepas dari apa yang tertulis dalam Alkitab. Pacaran menurut agama Kristen ataupacaran menurut Alkitab juga sangat berkaitan erat dengan cinta menurut Alkitab.

Untuk memperjelas pemahaman kita mengenai kesemuanya yang berhubungan denganpacaran ala Kristen atau pacaran Kristiani, maka ada baiknya kita menyimak arti dari pacaran itu sendiri, seperti penjelasan berikut ini:

Berpacaran adalah konsep masyarakat modern, artinya baru beberapa puluh tahun inilah kita mengenal konsep tersebut. Di masa lampau hal ini tidak di kenal karena perkawinan biasanya diatur oleh pihak keluarga atau orang tua kedua belah pihak. Dengan pengertian sederhana ini, sehingga dapat dipetik kesimpulan, bahwa pacaran adalah dampak dari pergaulan sehingga munculah hubungan (muda-mudi), dua orang yang tidak sejenis, berdasarkan rasa cinta.

Lebih lanjut pengembangan pengertian berpacaran diatas masih dapat dikembangkan dalam pengertian lain, yaitu bahwa berpacaran adalah suatu proses di mana seorang laki-laki dan perempuan menjajaki kemungkinan adanya kesepadanan di antara mereka berdua yang dapat dilanjutkan ke dalam perkawinan.

Intinya menelisik pengertian di atas, maka berpacaran itu bukanlah sekedar bersenang-senang melampiaskan nafsu, mengisi kekosongan, tetapi di dalam berpacaran itu ada suatu keseriusan dan kesungguhan untuk menjalin hubungan kedua belah pihak, yang menuju kepada suatu pertunangan.

Pada paragaraf diatas sudah dijelaskan bahwa pacaran itu adalah konsep masyarakat modern, dan secara tertulis Alkitab tidak pernah menyinggung soal kata pacaran ini, tetapi ada kisah-kisah dalam Alkitab yang menceritakan kisah hidup seorang pemuda yang begitu sangat mencintai seorang wanita, namanya Yakub (Kej. 29:18). Kisah ini memang tidak dicatat secara terperinci bagaimana sikap kedua insan ini, tetapi yang jelas Yakub mendapatkan Rahel, setelah ia bekerja dengan penuh kesungguhan selama tujuh tahun tujuh hari, tetapi ia harus menambah selama tujuh tahun lagi.

Dalam perjanjian baru mengenai pacaran ini hanya tersirat yaitu bagaimana sikap seorang Kristen misalnya (Roma 12:20) dimana sistim pacaran dunia tidak dapat dipakai oleh seorang Kristen ketika ia ada pada masa-masa pacaran. Dipihak lain Paulus menasihatkan anak didiknya Timotius yang masih muda itu supaya bisa jadi teladan dari hal percaya, perkataan, tingkah laku, kasih, kesetiaan dan kesucian agar orang tidak melihat atau menganggap rendah Timotius masih muda itu.

Selain itu perlu diketahui bahwa standar Alkitab tentang pacaran tersurat pada I Tesalonika 4:3, yaitu Allah berkehendak supaya kita ada dalam kekudusan. Jangan merusak Bait Allah yang di dalamnya Roh Allah bertahta. Mat. 5:27-28; Kid. 2:7; 3:5 ;8:4. Efesus 4:27 mengatakan janganlah beri kesempatan pada iblis sebab dengan kita membuka celah berarti kita telah memberi kesempatan untuk melakukan sesuatu yang tidak Allah kehendaki.

Dalam surat Paulus kepada jemaat di Efesus (Ef. 4:17-21) memperingatkan supaya anak Tuhan jangan jatuh pada hal berciuman dan lain-lain yang merangsang dalam masa berpacaran karena itu bertentangan dengan Alkitab. Dengan demikian orang-orang Kristen harus menghindari percumbuan dalam masa berpacaran, sebab tindakan tersebut merupakan penyerahan diri kepada seksualitas, membiarkan hawa nafsu berperan, yang nantinya akan membawa kepada kecemaran dan pelanggaran kehendak Allah.

Lebih jauh lagi pengajaran-pengajaran moral Paulus kepada anak muda Kristen di mana saja. I Timotius 5:22 bagian akhir “jagalah kemurnian dirimu”. Yesaya 5:20 celakalah yang mengatakan kejahatan itu baik dan kebaikan itu jahat. Wahyu 18:2-3 keindahan tubuh telah dipakai setan untuk menghancurkan nilai-nilai iman Kristen.

Setelah membedah beberapa ayat dalam Alkitab diatas, maka kesimpulan mengenai pacaran menurut Kristen dapat disimpulan sebagai berikut:

1. Berdoalah senantiasa, I Tes. 5:17; khususnya pada waktu pacaran

2. Ucapkanlah syukur senantiasa atas segala sesuatu, Ef. 5:20; apakah semua pengalaman pada waktu berpacaran menimbulkan ucapan syukur?

3. Lakukanlah segala sesuatu berdasarkan iman, Roma 14:23 setiap langkah dalam hubungan pacaran mempunyai dimensi ke atas yaitu tanggung jawab kepada Tuhan.

4. Pandanglah tubuhmu dan tubuhnya adalah bait Roh Kudus yang diam di dalam kamu. Kamu bukanlah milik kamu sendiri, kamu sudah dibeli! Karena itu muliakanlah Allah dengan tubuhmu ( I Korintus 6:19-20)

Standar Kekudusan dalam Berpacaran

Dalam mencintai (philia-persahabatan) ataupun menyayangi (storge-kekeluargaan) seseorang pasti kita ingin menunjukkannya secara nyata dalam perbuatan, baik itu dengan memberi sesuatu atau menyediakan waktu untuk bersamanya. Tapi dalam hal mencintai secara birahi (eros), tidak bisa tidak kita juga ingin “memiliki” secara fisik. Yang terakhir inilah yang perlu kita waspadai. Kalau kita menghormati kekasih kita, kita perlu menjaga apa yang tidak disukainya dan tidak melanggar batasan yang diberikannya, misalnya sampai dimana ia bisa mentoleransi pernyataan cinta kita.
Masalahnya tidak semua wanita dapat membuat batasan sampai dimana ia bisa mentoleransi. Banyak wanita yang karena takut kehilangan pacarnya, mau saja diperlakukan sebagaimanapun. Ada banyak pula wanita yang memang polos dan tidak tahu menahu akan seks, sehingga bersikap dingin atau tidak bisa berkata tidak. Bagaimanapun keputusan ada di tangan pria.
Di dalam Alkitab, Tuhan memang tidak menetapkan secara jelas mengenai hal ini. Ia hanya memberikan rambu-rambu. Ada banyak ayat Alkitab yang mendukung hal ini, seperti tubuh adalah bait Allah, tidak semua hal berguna, hiduplah kudus, hiduplah dalam damai satu dengan lainnya, jauhilah percabulan, jangan mencobai Tuhan Allahmu (kita pikir Tuhan pasti mengampuni jika kita berbuat dosa), jangan mendustai Roh Kudus, dsb.
Kita tidak dapat mengatakan sampai dimana, yang jelas sebagai orang beriman kita harus selalu waspada akan rambu-rambu Allah. Jika pertanyaannya, apakah boleh mencium pipi pacar, maka kami akan balik bertanya, apakah ada damai saat melakukannya? Apakah itu bukan bentuk percabulan? Apakah berguna? dsb. Jika bukan, silahkan saja. Pilihan dan keputusan kita adalah tanggung jawab kita sendiri.
Ada beberapa saran dari beberapa hamba Tuhan dalam buku mereka. Paul Gunadi mengatakan, “tidak boleh berpelukan berhadapan, berangkulan secara menyamping itu diperbolehkan.” Beberapa buku Kristen yang baik melarang melakukan percumbuan yaitu perbuatan saling merangsang meski tidak melakukan senggama. James C. Dobson memberi saran untuk selalu menjauhi tempat tidur jika sedang berdua. Buku “Cinta Kasih Seumur Hidup” (penulis: Dr. James C. Dobson, penerbit: Kalam Hidup, tahun terbit:1999, judul asli: Love For A Lifetime) memberikan 4 tahapan terakhir yang dilarang untuk mereka yang pacaran:
  1. Tangan ke tubuh
  2. Mulut ke buah dada
  3. Menyentuh bagian bawah pinggang
  4. Persetubuhan